Kalpana -A tool to decode Ayurvedic compendia
Vd. Jamdade Yogita1 , Vd. Divyashree K.S1, Vd. Chinmay Phadake1
- Department of Ayurved Samhita Siddhanta, College of Ayurved and Research Centre, Nigdi, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Address for correspondence:
Vd. Jamdade Yogita, Department of Ayurved Samhita – Siddhanta, PDEA’S College of Ayurved and Research Centre, Sector no. 25, near Vitthal Mandir, Pradhikaran, Pune44
Email id: email@example.com
Source of support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Ayurveda Samhitakara followed a specific methodology of writing a treatise with grammatical and compositional methods. Tantrayukti are part of Samhita Adhyayana and play an important role in deciphering the complicated sutra and they are very well elaborated by scholars. Seven Kalpana have been explained by Arundatta which have specific definition and are essential in understanding the Samhita. Preliminary reading indicates similarities of Kalpana with Tantrayukti and other TantraGuna. The aim of the present work was to find out the applicability and necessity of Kalpana in the study of Ashtanga Hrudaya and to find out the origin of Kalpana.
Critical study of Kalpana mentioned in Ayurveda literature was done with respect to their number, meaning, similarity or differences with the other TantraGuna. Examples of each Kalpana in Ashtanga Hrudaya were extracted. Survey was done with framed questionnaire to come up with consensus on the origin and necessity of Kalpana.
Most of the experts opined that both Tantrayukti and Kalpana are necessary for the study of Samhita. The origin of the Kalpana remains unclear with some opining that these may have been taken from Sahitya or Vyakarana or it might be Arunadatta’s own contribution. Few are intermingled to some extent. Experts also agreed with this similarity, that both indicate the important thing in a group of substances
Literary study revealed that Vidya Kalpana is the most applicable Kalpana while reading Ashtanga Hrudaya. Few of the Kalpana are intermingled with other Tantra Guna for example Vidya Kalpana and Paratantra Pratyaya Arthashraya denote same but with slight difference. Vidya Kalpana gives the idea that knowledge of other Shastra is also necessary for the study of Ayurveda, para tantra pratyaya refers to the quotations taken from other Shastra. Guna Kalpana and Bhakshya Kalpana are unique techniques to understand the meaning.
Key words: TantraGuna, Kalpana, Arthashraya, Tantrayukti, Vyakhya, Tacchilya
How to site this article : Jamdade Y, K S Divyashree, Phadake C. Kalpana – A tool to decode Ayurvedic compendia. Indian J Ayurveda Rsearch 2018; 1:43-50
In ancient times when there was no provision of technologies, Sages and Acharya used different methods to make the study of Samhita easier. Ayurveda Samhita were written in such a manner that they were easy to recite and remember provide if abided by the rules of Sanskrit Language. And while doing so, some of the true meanings of the shloka were hidden. To interpret these, the commentators of the treatises created various techniques. These are collectively called Tantra Guna which help in the proper understanding and interpretation of Ayurveda Samhita and Tantrayukti is the most popular among these. Similarly few terminologies/techniques coined by the commentators like Taccheelyadi, Kalpana, Arthashrya etc. which are also known as Tantra Guna.
These Tantra Guna were formerly part of the subject Padartha Vidnyan. During reformation of the curriculum in 2012, these Tantra Guna were included as part of Maulika siddhanta and Ashtanga Hrudaya. Padartha vidnyana evum Ayurved Itihas and Maulik siddhanta evum Ashtanga Hrudaya, both these subjects are part of first year B.A.M.S. syllabus.
‘Kalpana’ word is generally used as Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana (Five types of drug preparations) or Ahara Kalpana (Types of food intake) in Ayurvedic fraternity. ‘Kalpana’ has a peculiar meaning in the field of correct interpretation of wordy treasure of Ayurveda. Kalpana are seven in number. These Kalpana have specific definitions and they can be applied to any Tantra for interpreting the meaning of the Shloka correctly. They throw light on the hidden or lesser known meanings or concepts in a Sutra.
These Kalpana have been explained by the Commentator of Ashtanga Hrudaya in the last chapter of Uttarasthana [Vajeekarana Adhyaya]. They are not explained by the original Author i.e. Vagbhata. These are also not mentioned by Charaka or its commentators. This leads to the query on the origin or source of these terminologies. But Tantrayukti are mentioned in Charaka Samhita– Chakrapani Teeka, Sushruta Samhita – Dahlana Teeka, Charaka nyasa of Bhattara Harichanrda and also found in Kautilya’s Arthashaastra. However the source of Kalpana remains unknown.
Another question which arises is whether these Tantra Guna have equal importance as that of Tantrayukti. Like Tantrayukti whether these should be studied at the beginning of Samhita Adhyayana or at the end of it. The position of these in the Samhita shows that they are to be studied at the end after completely studying the Samhita. But if their objective is to help in understanding the subject clearly, then the reader should be well versed with these terminologies to interpret the meanings properly.
Though many research works have been carried out on Tantrayukti, no work has been done on Kalpana. Hence a literary search and Survey was done to understand the Kalpana and their applicability in Samhita Adhyayana.
Aims and objectives:
- To understand the concept of Kalpana.
- To assess the difference if any, between Kalpana and other TantraGuna like Tantrayukti.
- To assess the applicability of Kalpana in Ashtanga Hrudaya.
- Ashtanga Hrudaya with ArunadattaTeeka.
- Charaka Samhita and Chakrapani teeka.
- Sushruta Samhita and Dahlana teeka.
- Classical texts of Padartha Vidnyana.
- Ayurvediya shabdakosham and other dictionaries.
- Articles or journals related to the topic.
- Any previous researches done on this topic.
- Specially prepared questionnaire for the survey of experts in the field of Samhita Siddhanta.
The present study was a literary research along with survey study for the opinion of experts in Samhita Siddhanta. Each Kalpana was studied thoroughly. Examples of Kalpana were searched throughout the Ashtanga Hrudaya. These examples were included in the form of tables and graphs. Any difference or similarity with other Tantra Guna was found out and this was included in the questionnaire.
The questionnaire included 10 close ended questions, to get the expert opinion regarding necessity, origin, similarity and differences among Kalpana – Tantra Guna.
Ten experts having minimum ten years of experience in the field of Sanskrit, Samhita and Siddhanta were chosen for the survey. Survey was conducted through Google Survey Forms and personal interviews. Personal interviews of few of the Experts were conducted with detailed discussion regarding the Kalpana and their opinions were documented through hand written notes.
Review of Literature:
Bruhatrayi and other available textbooks were screened for Kalpana references. Different databases were searched for previous works. The etymology of the word Kalpana, its meaning from various dictionaries was collected.
Kalpana are explained by Acharya Arunadatta in the 40th chapter of Ashtanga Hrudaya Uttarasthana – Vajeekarana Adhyaya. These terminologies are explained after Tantrayukti and Vyakhya. No other Acharya have explained these terminologies except for Arunadatta.
The word Kalpana has many meanings, but in this context, it is taken as:
- A composition 
- Any literary production
- Any particular method of making.
Thus, Kalpana is varieties of description or various specific literary styles of explanation while writing a Shaastra or Tantra. 
- Pradhanasya Kalpana–Among the substances which have similar actions or properties, importance is given to the one which is superior, prominent or has distinguished properties or the best [prakrushta Guna]. This Kalpana indicates highlighting the most prominent thing in a group. For example – Agryasangraha explained in Samhita.
Few examples are given below in Table number 1 and 2.
Table no. 1: Example for Pradhanadya Kalpana of Saptadhatu
|Dhatu||Pradhana Karma||Other karma |
|Rakta||Jeevana||Varna prasadana, Pushti of Mamsadhatu|
|Mamsa||Lepa||Pushti of Medas and Sharira|
|Medas||Snehana||Pushti of Asthidhatu and imparts Drudatwa to Sharira|
|Asthi||Dharana||Pushti of Majja Dhatu|
|Majja||Purana||Imparts Bala and nourishment of Shukra Dhatu|
|Shukra||Garbhotpatti||Dhairya,preeti, dehabala, harsha|
Table no. 2
|Mala||Pradhana karma||Other karma |
|Pureesha||Avashthambha [deha dharana shakti]||Vayu and agni dharana|
|Sveda||Kleda vidhruti||Saukumarya utpatti|
- Pradhanena Kalpana – This Kalpana is similar to the previous one. Here Substances in a group are indicated or designated based on the important or pradhana dravya. e.g. The group of milk and its product is called by the name Ksheera varga, because of the importance of milk. This Kalpana can be seen in Ashtanga Hridaya at many places in Dravadravya Vijnaniya Adhyaya [sutra 5th chapter], Annaswaroopa Vijnana Adhyaya [sutra 6th chapter] etc. Apart from this, many Aushadhi yoga are named after the Pradhanadravya.
Figure no.1 showing difference between Pradhanasya and Pradhanena Kalpana.
- Guna Kalpana– The word Guna indicates quality or the attribute. Kalpana based on different qualities of an object is called Guna Kalpana. Guna Kalpana explains those attributes which are capable of doing some karma even though they are not included under Guna defined in Ayurveda. A list of various qualities found throughout the Ashtanga Hrudaya is mentioned in Table no. 3.
Table no. 3
|1.||A. H. Su. 1/28-29||Qualities of the quadrupeds of medicine||Daksha, Shuchi, Shastrartha, drushta karma , bahukalpa and bahu Guna, rasa-Guna-veerya Sampanna, yogyatwa, buddhiman, anuraga, aadhyatwa, Bhishakvashya, jnaapakatwa, Sattwabahula.|
|2.||A. H. Su. 30/24||Qualities of Kshara||Sheeghraga, shikhari, sukhanirvapya||Vishyandi|
|3.||A. H. Su. 5/1:||Qualities of Toya||Jeevana ,Tarpana,
|3.||A. H. Sha. 3/120: ArunadattaTeeka||Qualities which boost lifespan||Daana, Sheela, daya, satya, brahmacharya, krutajnata, maitri|
|4.||A. H. Chi. 19/98: ArunadattaTeeka||Qualities which eradicate Kushta||Vrata ,dama, yama, seva, tyagasheelata, dwija-guru puja, maitri|
|5.||A. H. U.35/7: ArunadattaTeeka||Qualities of Visha||AvyaktaRasa, Ashukara,Vishada, vyavayi, Vikashi, Apaki|
- Lesha Kalpana– The word Lesha indicates a small part or portion or briefly explained. In the texts, some topics are not elaborated due to their vastness or any other reasons; such topics are inferred from the partially explained things. Hence elaborating the concise part is called Lesha Kalpana.
Few examples are;
Vagbhata concisely states that Karshya is better than Sthaulya; Acharya Arunadatta has given explanation about the reasons for the same . He states that Sthoulya is difficult to treat because of Virudhopkrama when compared to Karshya.
Acharya Hemadri has elaborated the factors of Krucchra sadhya and Asadhya lakshana which is mentioned by Acharya Vagbhata in short, with the help of the 19 factors explained in the Sukhasadhya Lakshana. Each factor, e.g.; body capable of tolerating all medicine, young person, male, amarma gata roga etc, are explained in terms of Viparyaya and Atyanta Viparyaya for describing the Krucchra sadhya and Asadhya Vyadhi Lakshana respectively. For example; young person affected with a disease is easily curable [Sukha sadhya] whereas, in children and aged person the disease becomes Krucchra sadhya and in infant and elderly the disease becomes Asadhya.
In the first chapter of Sutra sthana, Acharya Vagbhata has explained 3 Dosha concisely in the commentary, Acharya Hemadri explains about Vyadhi pratikara. He says Vyadhi pratikara  is of 3 types viz, Hetu, Lakshana and Aushadha. Hetu is of two type – Antaranga and Bahiranga hetu. Antaranga Hetu is of again two types- Dosha and Dushya. Thus in the commentary on Dosha he explains about the practical aspect of Tridosha. And tells that the elaboration of Tridosha is further done with the sub types of Dosha. Thus Acharya Hemadri has elaborated ‘leshokta’
- Vidya Kalpana – Acharya have incorporated the knowledge of many other Shastra in the texts for easy understanding of the subject. References or mentioning of rules of Vyakarana like Samaasa, Vibhakti – Pratyaya etc for understanding the Shloka; Nirukti of various terminologies, examples from Jyotisha Shaastra and Nyaya are found in Ashtanga Hrudaya.
One cannot get mastery over any subject by just studying a single shaastra. One needs to be well versed with other allied sciences also. This is the notion behind the concept of Vidya Kalpana. Number of references from various other Shaastra found in different Sthana of Ashtanga Hrudaya is mentioned in Figure no.2.
Figure no. 2, indicating number of references found in various places in Ashtanga Hrudaya.
- Bhakshya Kalpana –This particular style of writing includes describing non eatable with the examples of Bhakshya i.e eatable. Similes are given to explain particular things. For eg. Chikitsa is called nectar.
This is a unique way of expressing things giving ‘Upama’ or ‘Drushtanta’; though no such examples are found other than the one explained by Arunadatta.
- Ajna Kalpana–The word ‘Aadnya or Ajna’ indicates ‘to command or to direct’. This Kalpana indicates the special instructions given by the Acharya. Some instructions explained by the Acharya are needed to be followed without questioning. These aptavachana or words of the great sages may or may not have any particular reason behind them. This kind of explanation is called Ajna Kalpana. For e.g. Instructions given in Sadvrutta like one should not pluck the grass, should not scribble on the ground etc.
Ajna Kalpana found in Ashtanga Hrudaya can be divided into instructions related to conduct, personal hygiene, food and diet etc.
Thorough study of Kalpana revealed that Vidya Kalpana is having the most applicability and Bhakshya Kalpana is having least applicabilty while reading Ashtanga Hrudaya.
From the critical study of the Kalpana, similarities/ intermingling between 1) Pradhana Kalpana and Bhuyastva Tacchilya, 2) Vidya Kalpana and Paratantra pratyaya Arthashraya, 3) Lesha Kalpana and Vakyashesha, Nirdesha, Pradesha Tantrayukti 4)Ajna Kalpana and Upadesha Tantrayukti was observed.
Some Kalpana are unique and very essential for understanding of the term e.g. Bhakshya Kalpana.
Results of the Survey study are summarized as follows:
Table no.4: Result of Survey Study
|Sr. no.||Question regarding Kalpana||Expert opinion [in %]|
|Yes||No||May be/ partially|
|1.||Are Kalpana necessary for the study of Samhita?||80%||20%|
|2.||Do you think there is need of Kalpana apart from other Tantra Guna?||60%||40%|
|3.||Some textbooks of Padartha Vidnyana mention three other Kalpana like Bhakti Kalpana, Ingita Kalpana and Vibhava Kalpana. Do you think they should be included in the 7 Kalpana?||40%||50%||10%|
|4.||Do you think there is intermingling of Kalpana with other Tantra Guna like Tantrayukti and Tachchilya?||70%||20%||10%|
|5.||What is the probable source or origin of Kalpana?||Sahitya||Vyakarana||Kavya||Other|
|6.||Do you think Pradhana Kalpana and Bhuyastwa Tachchilya are similar?||50%||50%|
|7.||Do you think there is similarity between Lesha Kalpana and Vakyashesha Tantrayukti?||40%||60%|
|8.||Do you think there is any similarity between Lesha Kalpana and Pradesha Tantrayukti?||40%||60%|
|9.||Do you think there is similarity between Ajna Kalpana and Upadesha / Niyoga Tantrayukti?||50%||40%||10%|
|10.||Do you think Vidya Kalpana and Paratantra Pratyaya Arthashraya denote the same meaning?||40%||50%||10%|
Necessity of Kalpana in Samhita Adhyayana:
Eighty percent of experts opined that Kalpana are absolutely necessary for the study of Tantra. These are the ways of getting the pin point knowledge. As many tools as possible can be used to interpret and study the Samhita. Even though Tantrayukti do serve the purpose of applying proper meaning and interpretation, these Tantraguna are also needed for the studying of Samhita by their specific explanations and description.
Twenty percent of the experts opined that, since Kalpana are not found in original Samhita and explained by the commentator, these are Arunadatta’s views only and it is difficult to establish them as separate entity as important as Tantrayukti hence not necessary for the study of Samhita. They are of the view that Tantrayukti alone is sufficient to understand and interpret the meanings of Samhita.
Source or Origin of Kalpana:
There is difference of opinion among the experts regarding the source of Kalpana. Forty percent of the experts opined that these might have been taken from Sahitya; forty percent of them opined that other Shaastra like Nyaya may be the source. While rest of them opined that they may be from Vyakarana or Kavya. An expert in Sanskrit opined that these might have been taken from Purva Mimamsa, which is a science of interpretation.
Similarities of Kalpana
After critical study, some Kalpana seem to be intermingling with either Tantrayukti or Taccheelyadi. i. e. there seems to be some overlapping of concepts.
Seventy percent of experts opined that there is intermingling of some of the Kalpana with other TantraGuna. Twenty percent of experts opined that Kalpana are not intermingled and they are to be studied as a separate entity. Whereas ten percent of experts opined that there is partial overlapping between them.
Utility of Kalpana:
The concept of Pradhanasya or Pradhanena Kalpana is useful while doing Chikitsa. The Agrya dravya or the important dravya for any particular disease can be listed out and can be used accordingly keeping in mind the Prakruti, desha, kala, bala etc. These Agrya Dravya are basically the first drug of choice in treatment. These Agrya dravya have been used mostly as a part of Trimarmiya Chikitsa.
Guna Kalpana helps in understanding the other Guna or attributes other than the Gurvadi Guna.
Lesha Kalpana helps to get the knowledge of hidden meanings and to understand the untold things in the Samhita.
Vidya Kalpana explains the necessity of having the knowledge of other related subjects.
Ajna Kalpana is useful in the form of Sadvrutta or one’s conduct.
Bhakshya Kalpana is a unique way of giving Upama of eatable with non eatable and highlighting the significance of something.
Ayurveda mentions three methods of learning – Adhyayana [self reading], Adhyapana [teaching] and Tadvidya Sambhasha [discussions with the experts]. Acharya Charaka emphasizes the methods of Adhyayana. According to him it should be done in three Steps :
- Vakyashah: To read properly all the sutra one by one.
- Vakyarthasha: To understand the meanings of each word in the sutra.
- Arthavayavasha: To understand even the most difficult topics, reading them repeatedly with proper interpretation.
Adhyayana  of Tantra is done by reading the each sutra again and again, understanding their meanings. First reading and then understanding the meaning of each terms indicates the method of Paatha and Avabodha. In this step, Kalpana are applicable.
The word Kalpana indicates a composition, a method of description, specific style of writing. They indicate the specific way of explanation given by Arunadatta. Samhita Adhyayana is not just a one time job; it has to be done repeatedly to recognize and appreciate the true meanings hidden in the sutra . After every reading some new points might come to the mind which has been left behind in the previous reading. Thus it is a cyclic process with re reading of Samhita after understanding the TantraGuna. Kalpana gives the reader a direction in which the Adhyayana should be done. Kalpana are the different style of description which reflects the vision of the Granthakara.
Writing a treatise is not an easy task, to make the work easier and to compose an organised Compendium, writers might have used different methods established in that particular era and specific methodology might have evolved over a period of time. Acharya Arunadatta found the necessity of compiling such techniques or methods and enumerated Kalpana, Arthashraya, Vyakhya and Tacchilyadi, apart from Tantrayukti.
Though some similarities have been observed, peculiarity of Kalpana is for Shabdartha bodha and Vakyartha bodha e.g Lesha Kalpana which is helpful in understanding the meaning of a sutra [Vakyartha] and other Kalpana like Guna and Bhakshya Kalpana are useful for Shaabdabodha.
Discussion based on Survey:
The basic aim of the survey was to find out the necessity of Kalpana TantraGuna in Samhita Adhyayana and to know the origin of these. It was observed from the survey that Kalpana are necessary for the study of Samhita. Though Tantrayukti also serve the same purpose, Kalpana, Arthashraya, Vyakhya, Tacchilya etc TantraGuna are also absolutely necessary to get the proper knowledge of a Tantra.
The exact origin of Kalpana could not be traced out as the opinion of the experts was divided on this. Any other reference of Kalpana is not found. Experts opined that, such style of writing might have been common during Arunadatta’s time or these may be his own contribution.
There is intermingling of some of the Tantrayukti, Arthashraya and Tacchilya in the concept of Kalpana. Though they seem to be giving the same meaning, there is very minute difference among these.
Both Pradhanasya and Pradhanena Kalpana are based on the fact of giving importance to the most dominant factor among a group of things. This Kalpana is similar to Bhuyastwa Tachchilya to a certain extent. Bhuyastwa also indicates about giving importance to the dominant factor. Few experts expressed their opinion as Bhuyastwa Tacchilya mainly relates to Quantity; whereas Pradhana Kalpana is related to qualitative predominance. Also one of the experts was of the opinion that Pradhanena Kalpana is more correlated to Bhuyastwa Tachchilya.
Though at a glance Lesha Kalpana seems similar to Vakyashesha, Uddesha and Pradesha Tantrayukti. Kalpana differs from Vakyashesha; in Tantrayukti, few words are omitted in a sutra and whole meaning of that sutra lies in that missing word while in Lesha Kalpana, meaning is to be inferred from partial information. In Uddesha, a short statement is elaborated in the form of Nirdesha at some other place, but elaboration of leshokta is not found elsewhere. It also resembles like PradeshaTantrayukti – because of the vastness of the topic only a part of it is explained in the Samhita. Thus description of Lesha Kalpana is overlapping with that of Pradesha Tantrayukti in a subtle way.
Many sciences are incorporated in Ayurveda Samhita like Vyakarana, Darshana, and Jyotisha etc. in the form of Vidya Kalpana. This Kalpana is similar to Paratantra Pratyaya Arthashraya in some manner. In this Arthashraya, references from other sciences are given to make the point clear. There is a very subtle variation between the two. Vidya Kalpana denotes the vision of the granthakara that other Shaastra are also needed for the study of Ayurveda; whereas Para Tantra Pratyaya indicates as to from where this knowledge is taken and how to apply it for Ayurveda Adhyayana.
Ajna Kalpana seems very much similar to Upadesha or Niyoga Tantrayukti. Though there is not much difference among the three, Ajna Kalpana are the commands which imparts significance on do’s and don’ts whereas Upadesha Tantrayukti refers to all the statements by the Acharya and Niyoga indicates the particular statements which have to be followed without fail.
Apart from the above said intermingling of the Kalpana, the rest two, Guna Kalpana and Bhakshya Kalpana are peculiar and denote the specific style of explaining things in a unique manner.
Scope of the study:
Few of the Kalpana like the Lesha Kalpana, Bhakshya Kalpana, can be studied further and applied to other Tantra to find out their importance or the practical utility.
Further study can be done by comparing Kalpana with other TantraGuna like Vyakhya.
Search of Sahityaadi Shastra can be done and Opinions of experts in the field of Sanskrit and Ayurveda Samhita can be taken regarding origin of Kalpana.
Detailed, elaborate and individual opinions of experts in the field of Sanskrit and Ayurveda Samhita can be taken regarding the utility and applicability of Kalpana, Arthashraya, Tacchelyadi and Vyakhya and their need in Samhita Adhyayana.
Kalpana are helpful in getting the knowledge of Samhita as like of Tantrayukti. Vada pramana, siddhanta can be incorporated in Kalpana. Kalpana tantraguna can also be used to understand other treaties.They serve as an aid for Adhyayana of any Shastra or tantra for their correct interpretation. There are similarities among Kalpana and Tantrayukti in some aspects. There is need to understand all Tantra Guna properly. After complete reading Samhita it should be taught along with the applicability, to the students of Ayurveda as a part of post graduate studies in the Samhita Siddhanta.
Applicability of Kalpana and Arthashraya TantraGuna in Ashtanga Hridaya Adhyayana
Department of Ayurveda Samhita Siddhanta,
General questions regarding Kalpana and Arthashraya:
|Sl No||Items||Yes/ No|
|1||Are Kalpana and Arthashraya both necessary for the study of Samhita?|
|2||Do you think there is need of Kalpana and Arthashraya apart from other Tantrayukti?|
|3||Some textbooks of Padartha Vidnyana mention three other Kalpana like Bhakti Kalpana, Ingita Kalpana and Vibhava Kalpana. Do you think they should be included in the 7 Kalpana?|
|4||Do you think there is intermingling of Kalpana and Arthashraya with other TantraGuna like Tantrayukti and Tachchilya?|
|5||What is the probable source or origin of Kalpana and Arthashraya?||Sahitya/Vyakarana/Kavya/ Other|
Specific questions regarding Kalpana and Arthashraya:
|Sl No||Items||Yes/ No|
|1||Do you think Pradhana Kalpana and Bhuyastwa Tachchilya are similar?|
|2||Do you think there is similarity between Lesha Kalpana and Vakyashesha Tantrayukti?|
|3||Do you think there is any similarity between Lesha Kalpana and Pradesha Tantrayukti?|
|4||Do you think Varnopajanana and Vakyashesha Tantrayukti are similar?|
|5||Do you think there is similarity between Lopa Arthashraya and Vakyashesha Tantrayukti?|
|6||you think there is similarity between Ajna Kalpana and Upadesha / NiyogaTantrayukti?|
|7||Do you think Tantrasandnya Arthashraya and Swasandnya Tantrayukti are similar?|
|8||Do you think there is difference between Hetu hetuka Dharma, Atidesha Tantrayukti and Guna guni Vibhava Tacchilya ?|
|9||Do you think there is difference between Shabdanyatva and Prakruta Arthashraya?|
|10||Do you think Vidya Kalpana and Paratantra Pratyaya Arthashraya denote the same meaning?|
|11||Do you think there is difference between Karya Karana dharma and Hetu hetuka dharma Arthashraya?|
A.H.Su. – Ashtanga Hrudaya Sutra sthana
A.H.Sha – Ashtanga Hrudaya Sharirasthana
A.H.Chi – Ashtanga Hrudaya Chikitsasthana
A.H.U.- Ashtanga Hrudaya Uttarasthan
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