Structural and Chemical Characterization of Rasaparpati w.s.r to X-ray Diffraction
Lily Meher1, Arun ku.Das1
1.P.G. Dept. of Rasashastra & Bhaisajya Kalpana ,Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri,Odisa,India .
Address for correspondence :
Dr Lily Meher ,P.g Dept. of Rasashatra & Bhaisajya Kalpana , Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri,Odisa,India .
Rasaparpati is one of the chaturvidha rasayana commonly used in Grahani disorder.The present study is concerned with the processing and chemical characterization of Rasaparpati. Methods–Kajjali was prepared by using purified mercury and Sulphur and Rasaparpati was prepared by melting of Kajjali in an iron ladle and pressing in between the banana leaves into a thin flake. Because of its wide utility, the high end techniques are used to identify the composition of the medicaments. X-ray Diffraction is a popular analytical technique which has been used for the analysis of both molecular and crystal structures, qualitative identification of various compounds, phase transitions etc.
Results-Analysis of Rasaparpati through X-ray Diffraction showed that, the highest peak was observed for HgS (Metacinnabar). Peaks of free Sulphur were also seen. No free mercury peaks were found. The 2 -Theta scales of HgS were 26.377, 30.557, 43.790, 51.808, 54.201, 63.628, 70.075, 72.215 with d-spacing 3.378, 2.925, 2.067, 1.764, 1.692, 1.462, 1.342, 1.308 respectively, which is in the cubic form. Sulphur present at 2 -Theta scales 22.69, 23.08, 27.73, 28.67, 28.95, 30.55, 31.40 of d-spacing 3.91, 3.85, 3.21, 3.11, 3.08, 2.92, and 2.84 respectively in orthorhombic form.
Conclusion-Prepared Rasaparpati showed HgS peaks, free Mercury peaks were not detected.
Keywords: Chemical characterization, Rasaparpati, X-ray Diffraction
In the current kinetic era, Rasaushadhis are having wide therapeutic application. The innate qualities like quick onset of action, lesser dose, tastelessness, prolonged self life, better palatability of Rasaushadhies have helped them to conquer the demand of patients as well as pharmaceutical proprietors. Today it has become mandatory to provide proper scientific background to classical Ayurveda preparations by interpreting in the light of modern chemistry. Rasaparpati is a thin flake like preparation prepared from Shodhita Parada and Shodhita Gandhaka. X-ray diffraction is now a common and a long-established technique for the nondestructive characterization of crystalline and non-crystalline materials and, as such, might appear to lack the glamour and immediacy of newly-developed instrumentation. Present study is aimed to provide analytical profile through X-ray Diffraction of Rasaparpati prepared by using equal quantity of purified Parada and purified Gandhaka.
Materials and Methods:
Present study includes preparation of Rasaparpati and its chemical characterization through X-ray Diffraction. Rasaparpati was prepared with Samagandhaka Kajjali using equal quantity of purified Parada and purified Gandhaka. The raw drugs were procured from local market of Puri, Odisha. Identification and authentication of raw materials were screened by the experts of Rasashastra, Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri, Odisha as per the Ayurvedic classics. The methods are as follows:
Purification of Parada: 
Parada(500gms) and Sudha(500gms)(lime) were taken in a Khalva Yantra and triturated continuously for 8 days i.e. 3 hrs /day approximately. When the trituration was over, mixture of Parada and lime was washed with hot water repeatedly to obtained Parada [Fig – 1 (a)]. Mercury collected from above step, dehusked garlic (250gms) & Saindhava Lavana (500gms) were taken in the Khalwa Yantra and triturated well till the Kalka turns in to Krishna Varna. After complete trituration, the paste was washed with luke warm water and shiny, clean and clear Parada (400gms) was collected [Fig – 1 (b)] .
Purification of Gandhaka: 
The powdered Gandhaka (650gms) was taken in a Loha darvi, smeared with Goghrita (150ml) and then subjected to heat on mild fire and was stirred with spoon gently. When Gandhaka melted completely, it was poured in to cow’s milk (2.6ltrs) containing vessel which was covered with a clean cloth piece and shaking the container continuously. The Gandhaka (630gms) collected at the bottom of vessel containing cow’s milk was collected and washed thoroughly with lukewarm water.(Fig- 2)
Preparation of Samagunagandhaka Kajjali : 
Purified Parada (100gms) and purified Gandhaka (100gms) obtained from above procedures were taken in equal amount and triturated in a clean Khalwa Yantra until it becomes very fine black and lusterless powder.(Fig- 3)
Preparation of Rasaparpat: 
100gms of Kajjali was taken for preparation of Rasaparpati. Kajjali was put in an Iron ladle which was smeared with required quantity of Goghrita and heated with mild fire directly on the Angarakosthi. When melting started it is stirred gently and heating continued till Kajjali became paste like. Iron ladle was then taken out from the fire and immediately the paste was poured on the banana leaf placed over the cow dung platform and pressed by another banana leaf containing cow dung Pottali with downward and forward force. After cooling the flakes formed were collected i. e. the Rasaparpati (85gms) (Fig- 4).
X-ray Diffraction study:
X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The characteristic x-ray diffraction pattern generated in a typical XRD analysis provides a unique “fingerprint” of the crystals present in the sample. XRD study of the prepared composition was carried out at room temperature using an x-ray diffractometer (Rigaku, Japan) using Cu-Kα source with wavelength 1.54Å. 0.5gms of sample was mounted on the sample holder. The diffraction patterns were automatically recorded at a rate of 4°/min in the range 2θ = 10°-70° with a step size of 0.02°. The study was conducted at CSIR – NIIST, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
During purification of Gandhaka – Colour changed from dark yellow to orange yellow during liquefaction of Gandhaka. After each process, Gandhaka became more brittle and formed granules and appeared brighter.
Table No.1 showing peaks of HgS
|Sl. No||d [A]||2 theta [degree]||Rel. Intensity [%]|
Table No.2 showing peaks of S
|Sl. No||d [A]||2 theta [degree]||Rel. Intensity [%]|
Fig – 1(a) Purification Of Parada With Sudha(Lime)
Fig – 1(b) Purification Of Parada With dehusk garlic and Saindhav Lavana
Fig – 2 Gandhaka Sodhana
Fig – 3 Preparation of Samagunagandhaka Kajjali
Fig – 4 Preparation of Rasaparpati
During purification of Parada – after a couple of hours of trituration Parada started disintegrating into small globules and started mixing up with lime powder. Colour of the mixture turned into light grey. When Parada was triturated with Lasuna paste and Saindhava Lavana, after few hours the Parada started disintegrating into small globules and paste turned to greenish colour. On washing this paste with luke warm water, Parada globules started mixing with each other and regained its original state.
During preparation of Kajjali, at first the colour of the mixture is yellowish black, rough in touch and gradually after several hours of trituration, the colour became blackish and smooth. Finally the colour turned to black like collyrium, the texture became smooth and lustureless.
During Rasaparpati preparation, Kajjali turned into paste like form with pungent odour of SO2. The outer surface of Parpati was dark black with shining appearance. On breaking, it produced a typical sound with silvery line.
Result of X- ray diffraction analysis showed following data. Identification of sample was done by matching the data with standard JCPDS database. The highest peak thus observed was HgS (metacinnabar). HgS present in cubic form at 2 -Theta scales 26.377, 30.557, 43.790, 51.808, 54.201, 63.628, 70.075, 72.215 of d-spacing 3.378, 2.925, 2.067, 1.764, 1.692, 1.462, 1.342, 1.308 respectively. Peaks for free Sulphur were also seen in orthorhombic form which were present at 2 -Theta scales 22.69, 23.08, 27.73, 28.67, 28.95, 30.55, 31.40 of d-spacing 3.91, 3.85, 3.21, 3.11, 3.08, 2.92, 2.84 respectively. No free mercury peaks were found.
XRD of Rasaparpati showed many peaks. The highest intensity peak of sample is in consistent with HgS, when compared with JCPDS card no-004-0898. However other peaks observed in the sample can be attributed to free Sulphur, which matches with JCPDS card No-002-2163. No peaks of free mercury were found. Ankesh Kumar Agrawal et al., published high end analysis of Rasaparpati prepared by Hingulottha Parada and Ashuddha parada. This study showed different peaks of HgS in XRD study when compared to the present study.
XRD pattern of Rasaparpati shows HgS (metacinnabar) in cubic form along with free sulphur in orthorhombic form. No other peaks were found, thus strengthening the fact that the Rasaparpati was processed correctly. The XRD pattern confirms that the prepared Rasaparpati resemble the characteristic of compound HgS.
Authors would like to say their deep gratitude of thanks to N. Pruthiviraj, CSIR – NIIST, Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala. Mr. Sanjaya Swain and Mr. Avishek Satapathy, Dept. of Physics, BIT Mesra, Ranchi for their supports and guidance.
Financial support and Sponsorship
Conflicts of Interest
Authors have no competing interests.
- Tripathy Indradev Trans. Rasendra Sara Sangraha , Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi , Edn. 1998 ,Chapter1,verse 4,2.
- O. Ruud et al. (eds.), Nondestructive Characterization of Materials IV, 1991 , 247-257.
- Sharma Sadananda , Rasatarangini , Motilala Banarasidas publication, Delhi,11th 1979, Chapter 5,verse 27-30,79
- Sharma Sadananda , Rasatarangini , Motilala Banarasidas publication, Delhi,11th 1979,Chapter 8,verse 7-12,176.
- Sharma Sadananda , Rasatarangini , Motilala Banarasidas publication, Delhi,11th 1979, Chapter 2,verse 27-28,16.
- Sharma Sadananda , Rasatarangini , Motilala Banarasidas publication, Delhi,11th 1979,Chapter 42,verse 2,19
- Particle analytical, http://particle.dk/methods-analytical-laboratory/xrd-analysis/
- Ankesh Kumar Agrawal. Swapnil Chaudhari, Jayant Manjhi, Galib Ruknuddin, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, Analysis of Rasa Parpati through Advanced Analytical Techniques, Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine 2017 Vol-6 Issue-1-2 Jan-Jun.